Evolution of Programming Languages

Software are developed through various programming languages. Programming started with machine languages and evolved to new age- programming systems.

First Generation of Programming Languages (1GL) Early programming was done on in machine language.
Second Generation of Programming Languages (2GL) Post machine language, the assembly language programming came about. Together 1GL and 2GL are called low-level languages that are easier for computers to understand but difficult for programmers.
Third Generation of Programming Languages (3GL) These languages were largely based on the English language and hence were easier for programmers to comprehend. The 3GLs are also called High-Level Languages, for example, ALGOL, COBOL, Fortran, BASIC, C, PASCAL, etc.
Fourth Generation of Programming Languages (4GL) These programming languages are similar to 3GL but are even easier to understand with their proximity to the natural language. The most popular 4GL is SQL (Structure Query Language)
Fifth Generation of Programming Languages (5GL) The fifth-generation programming languages are used mainly in Artificial Intelligence research, for example, Prolog, OP, Mercury, etc.


Let’s take a closer look at some of these languages: